BMC infectious diseases 2017 09 0517(1) 605 doi 10.1186/s12879-017-2709-x
We describe the accumulation of HIV-1 drug resistance and its effect on the activity of next-line components in patients with virological failure (HIV-1 RNA >1000 copies/mL) after 1 year (t1) of first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) not switching to second-line drugs for one additional year (t2) in low-middle income countries (LMIC).
METHODS AND RESULTS
We selected 48 patients from the DREAM cohort (Maputo, Mozambique); their median pre-ART CD4+ cell count was 165 cells/μl. At t1 patients were receiving ART since a median of 12.2 months (mainly zidovudine/lamivudine/nevirapine), their median HIV RNA was 3.8 log10 copies/mL, 43 (89.6%) presented at least one resistance-associated mutation (RAM), most frequently for lamivudine/emtricitabine, nevirapine and efavirenz. Resistance to tenofovir, was 10% at 1 year and higher than 20% at 2 years, while projection at 3 years was >30%. At t2, 42 (89.4%) had a predicted low-level or higher resistance to at least 1 s-line drug. At t1, the frequency of RAM in patients with a lower adherence to pharmacy appointments (<95%) was significantly lower (12/20, 60% for NRTI and 14/20, 70% for NNRTI) than in those with a better adherence (26/28, 92.8% for NRTI and 25/28, 89.3% for NNRTI) (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.02-0.63, p = 0.012 and OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.06-1.29, p = 0.103, respectively). Overall thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) accumulation rate was 0.32/year, 0.50/year in the subgroup with HIV RNA >10,000 copies/mL; NNRTI RAM accumulation rate was 0.15/year, 0.40/year in the subgroup with HIV RNA >10,000 copies/mL.
While the activity of NNRTIs is compromised early during failure, tenofovir and zidovudine activity are reduced more frequently after 1 year of documented virological failure of thymidine analogue-based first-line ART, with RAMs accumulating faster in patients with higher viral loads. The present observation may help informing decisions on when to switch to a second line ART in patients on virological failure in LMIC.