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Accumulation of HIV-1 drug resistance in patients on a standard thymidine analogue-based first line antiretroviral therapy after virological failure: implications for the activity of next-line regimens from a longitudinal study in Mozambique.

Accumulation of HIV-1 drug resistance in patients on a standard thymidine analogue-based first line antiretroviral therapy after virological failure: implications for the activity of next-line regimens from a longitudinal study in Mozambique.
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De Luca A, Sidumo ZJ, Zanelli G, Magid NA, Luhanga R, Brambilla D, Liotta G, Mancinelli S, Marazzi MC, Palombi L, Ceffa S,


De Luca A, Sidumo ZJ, Zanelli G, Magid NA, Luhanga R, Brambilla D, Liotta G, Mancinelli S, Marazzi MC, Palombi L, Ceffa S, (click to view)

De Luca A, Sidumo ZJ, Zanelli G, Magid NA, Luhanga R, Brambilla D, Liotta G, Mancinelli S, Marazzi MC, Palombi L, Ceffa S,

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BMC infectious diseases 2017 09 0517(1) 605 doi 10.1186/s12879-017-2709-x

Abstract
BACKGROUND
We describe the accumulation of HIV-1 drug resistance and its effect on the activity of next-line components in patients with virological failure (HIV-1 RNA >1000 copies/mL) after 1 year (t1) of first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) not switching to second-line drugs for one additional year (t2) in low-middle income countries (LMIC).

METHODS AND RESULTS
We selected 48 patients from the DREAM cohort (Maputo, Mozambique); their median pre-ART CD4+ cell count was 165 cells/μl. At t1 patients were receiving ART since a median of 12.2 months (mainly zidovudine/lamivudine/nevirapine), their median HIV RNA was 3.8 log10 copies/mL, 43 (89.6%) presented at least one resistance-associated mutation (RAM), most frequently for lamivudine/emtricitabine, nevirapine and efavirenz. Resistance to tenofovir, was 10% at 1 year and higher than 20% at 2 years, while projection at 3 years was >30%. At t2, 42 (89.4%) had a predicted low-level or higher resistance to at least 1 s-line drug. At t1, the frequency of RAM in patients with a lower adherence to pharmacy appointments (<95%) was significantly lower (12/20, 60% for NRTI and 14/20, 70% for NNRTI) than in those with a better adherence (26/28, 92.8% for NRTI and 25/28, 89.3% for NNRTI) (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.02-0.63, p = 0.012 and OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.06-1.29, p = 0.103, respectively). Overall thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) accumulation rate was 0.32/year, 0.50/year in the subgroup with HIV RNA >10,000 copies/mL; NNRTI RAM accumulation rate was 0.15/year, 0.40/year in the subgroup with HIV RNA >10,000 copies/mL.

CONCLUSIONS
While the activity of NNRTIs is compromised early during failure, tenofovir and zidovudine activity are reduced more frequently after 1 year of documented virological failure of thymidine analogue-based first-line ART, with RAMs accumulating faster in patients with higher viral loads. The present observation may help informing decisions on when to switch to a second line ART in patients on virological failure in LMIC.

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