The aim is to understand the Observational cohort study of patients diagnosed with low-risk PC—Gleason score ≤6, clinical tumor stage ≤2A, and prostate specific antigen (PSA) level ≤10—at US Department of Veterans Affairs between January 1, 2001 and October 31, 2015 and treated with radical prostatectomy. Outcomes included upgrading to Gleason Grade Group 2 (GG2), GG ≥ 3, PSA recurrence, pathologic tumor stage ≥3, positive surgical margins, and all-cause mortality. A total of 2857 men (AA: 835 White: 2022) with a median follow-up of 7.1 years. Overall, there was no significant difference between AA and White men in upgrading to GG ≥ 3 (RR = 1.18, p = 0.43), tumor stage ≥3 (RR = 0.95, p = 0.74), positive surgical margins (RR = 1.14, p = 0.20), PSA recurrence (SHR = 1.26, p = 0.06), and all-cause mortality (SHR = 1.26, p = 0.16). However, there was a significant increase in upgrading for AA to GG2 (RR = 1.49, p < 0.01).There was no significant difference in most adverse pathologic outcomes between AA and White patients. However, GG2 upgrading was more common in AA men. The implication is that AA may need to undergo additional evaluation, such as a biopsy MRI, before initiating AS. Whether the increase in GG2 upgrading will lead to poorer long-term clinical outcomes such as metastasis and PCSM also requires further investigation.

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