This study aimed to investigate the association of acute kidney injury (AKI) with change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in children with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Single centre, retrospective longitudinal study including all prevalent children aged 1-18 years with nondialysis CKD stages 3-5. Variables associated with CKD were analysed for their potential effect on annualised eGFR change (ΔGFR/year) following multiple regression analysis. Composite end-point including 25% reduction in eGFR or progression to kidney replacement therapy was evaluated.
Of 147 children, 116 had at least 1-year follow-up in a dedicated CKD clinic with mean age 7.3 ± 4.9 years with 91 (78.4%) and 77 (66.4%) with 2- and 3-year follow-up respectively. Mean eGFR at baseline was 29.8 ± 11.9 ml/min/1.73 m with 79 (68%) boys and 82 (71%) with congenital abnormalities of kidneys and urinary tract (CAKUT). Thirty-nine (33.6%) had at least one episode of AKI. Mean ΔGFR/year for all patients was – 1.08 ± 5.64 ml/min/1.73 m but reduced significantly from 2.03 ± 5.82 to – 3.99 ± 5.78 ml/min/1.73 m from youngest to oldest age tertiles (P < 0.001). There was a significant difference in primary kidney disease (PKD) (77% versus 59%, with CAKUT, P = 0.048) but no difference in AKI incidence (37% versus 31%, P = 0.85) between age tertiles. Multiple regression analysis identified age (β = – 0.53, P < 0.001) and AKI (β = – 3.2, P = 0.001) as independent predictors of ΔGFR/year. 48.7% versus 22.1% with and without AKI reached composite end-point (P = 0.01).
We report AKI in established CKD as a predictor of accelerated kidney disease progression and highlight this as an additional modifiable risk factor to reduce progression of kidney dysfunction. Graphical abstract.