Mammomonogamus spp. are parasites with curious characteristics, such as the “Y” shape that results from male and female maintaining the permanent copulation position and the controversial presence or absence of spicules. These nematodes are hematophagous and cause damage to the upper respiratory tracts of cattle, sheep, goats, deer, wild yaks, and orangutans. Human infection is rare and most cases until now have been in the Caribbean Islands or in Brazil, and mainly in farmworkers but recently there have been reports affecting tourists. In the present work, the parasites were recovered from the laryngopharynx and larynx region of Bubalus bubalis on the island of Marajó, Pará, Brazil. Different microscopy methodologies were applied (bright field, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy) to explore the ultrastructural details of the anterior end, genital structures and the host tissue damage caused by the nematodes. The well-developed mouth is an important structure in the identification of these nematodes and used by the parasite to adhere to the host’s tissue. Different methodologies in microscopy and molecular biology contributed to a detailed morphological description and showed the phenotypic position of Mammomonogamus laryngeus. Light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed details of the papillae, amphids, festoons, ribs, and teeth. Fluorescence microscopy enabled a detailed characterization of different structures, such as the bursal rays and SEM enabled the visualization of the specialized features of the cuticle surface in the male and female. Histopathological analyses, cryofracture and environmental SEM experiments of the infected tissues were carried out in order to investigate the lesions resultant from the parasitism. In addition, the parasite couples were submitted to cryofracture and these results revealed details of the reproductive structures of both sexes, including the male spicule.
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