Although liver resection is the only potentially curative treatment for colorectal liver metastases, recurrence is frequent. We previously published the early results of a randomized controlled phase 3 trial showing that adjuvant therapy with uracil-tegafur and leucovorin significantly prolongs recurrence-free survival. This study sought to elucidate the impact of adjuvant chemotherapy on patient survival after an additional follow-up period, building upon the results of our previous study.
After resection for colorectal liver metastases, patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive adjuvant uracil-tegafur and leucovorin or surgery alone. Patients assigned to the uracil-tegafur and leucovorin group received 5 cycles of uracil-tegafur and leucovorin within 8 weeks after surgery.
Patients were assigned to an adjuvant uracil-tegafur and leucovorin (n = 90) or a surgery alone (n = 90) group; 3 patients were excluded because of protocol violations. After a median follow-up period of 7.36 years (95% confidence interval, 6.93-7.87), 60 (68.2%) patients in the uracil-tegafur and leucovorin group and 61 (68.5%) patients in the surgery alone group developed recurrences. The median recurrence-free survival was 1.45 years (95% confidence interval, 0.96-2.16) in the uracil-tegafur and leucovorin group and 0.70 years (95% confidence interval, 0.44-1.07) in the surgery alone group. The locations and treatments of the first recurrences did not differ between the groups, nor did the overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-1.38; P = .54). The overall survival was significantly longer in patients who underwent curative repeated resection than in patients who received non-surgical treatment (hazard ratio, 0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.40; P < .0001).
Adjuvant uracil-tegafur and leucovorin significantly prolonged the recurrence-free survival but not the overall survival. The repeated resection was the most important factor influencing overall survival.

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