Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. As a result of the increasing use of chest CT scans and lung cancer screening initiatives, there is a rapidly increasing need for lung lesion analysis and – in case of confirmed cancer – treatment. A desirable future concept is the one-stop outpatient bronchoscopic approach including navigation to the tumor, malignancy confirmation and immediate treatment. Several novel bronchoscopic diagnostic and treatment concepts are currently under evaluation contributing to this concept. As the majority of suspected malignant lung lesions develop in the periphery of the lungs, improved bronchoscopic navigation to the target lesion is of key importance. Fortunately, the field of interventional pulmonology is evolving rapidly and several advanced bronchoscopic navigation techniques are clinically available, allowing an increasingly accurate tissue diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions. Additionally, multiple bronchoscopic treatment modalities are currently under investigation. This review will provide a concise overview of advanced bronchoscopic techniques to diagnose and treat peripheral lung cancer by describing their working mechanisms, strengths and weaknesses, identifying knowledge gaps and indicating future developments. The desired one-step concept of bronchoscopic ‘diagnose and treat’ peripheral lung cancer is on the horizon.Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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