Review the latest evidence on urologic oncology on kidney, bladder and prostate tumors.
Abstracts on kidney, bladder and prostate cancer presented at the 2019 congresses (EAU, AUA, ASCO and ESMO) and the publications with the greatest impact in this period, with the highest evaluation by the OncoForum committee, are reviewed.
In patients with metastatic kidney cancer, regimens including immunotherapy (nivolumab + ipilimumab, pembrolizumab) have been shown to be superior to sunitinib in terms of survival. In patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, pembrolizumab has been shown to be an effective alternative in those refractory to bacillus Calmette-Guérin, while in patients with metastatic urothelial cancer, third-line enfortumab vedotin achieved a significant response rate (44%). In patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa), ultrafractionated external radiotherapy did not show any greater acute toxicity than fractionated or hypofractionated radiotherapy. The benefit of enzalutamide and apalutamide associated with castration has been confirmed in M1 PCa patients, regardless of disease volume. In patients with castration-resistant M0 PCa, treatment with enzalutamide, apalutamide or darolutamide has been associated with a delay in the occurrence of metastasis and prolonged survival. Cabazitaxel has demonstrated a survival benefit in patients with metastatic CRPC, while olaparib showed anti-tumor activity after chemotherapy in those tumors with mutations in DNA repair genes.
These data show the implementation of immunotherapy as a novel alternative against renal and bladder cancer. The arrival of new agents for advanced urothelial carcinoma should be highlighted, and the efficacy of enzalutamide and apalutamide in de novo metastatic prostate cancer is established. In metastatic CRPC, cabazitaxel and olaparib (targeting mutations) are promising therapeutic options.

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