The following is a summary of “Research Advances in Mast Cell Biology and Their Translation Into Novel Therapies for Anaphylaxis,” published in the July 2023 issue of Allergy and Clinical by Dispenza et al.
Anaphylaxis is a severe, potentially fatal systemic allergic reaction for which no known effective preventative treatments exist. Its primary cell mediator, the mast cell, has several inadequately understood pathophysiologic roles and functions in IgE-mediated responses. Recent developments in the comprehension of allergic mechanisms have led to the identification of novel inhibitory targets for mast cell function and activation.
New drugs that modulate immune tolerance, mast cell proliferation and differentiation, and IgE regulation and production can potentially prevent anaphylaxis. Several FDA-approved medications for chronic urticaria, mastocytosis, and cancer are also being repurposed to avoid anaphylaxis.
Not only have new therapeutics demonstrated potential efficacy for preventing IgE-mediated reactions, but in some instances, they can also provide information about mast cell mechanisms in vivo. This article summarizes the most recent advances in the treatment of anaphylaxis that have resulted from the development of novel pharmacologic tools and the researchers’ current knowledge of mast cell biology.