Enzyme-triggered in situ chromogenic and/or fluorogenic reactions under accessible conditions are significant for developing enzyme activity and related spectroscopic assays. Here, we describe a facile one-pot synthetic strategy to prepare silicon-containing nanoparticles (Si CNPs) with yellow-green fluorescence and orange-red color by mixing N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ethylenediamine and p-aminophenol (AP) in aqueous solution at a mild temperature. Encouraged by the AP-regulated simple synthetic procedure and the generation of AP from alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-aminophenol phosphate (APP), a fluorometric and colorimetric dual-readout ALP activity assay can be rationally envisioned and developed by employing APP as the substrate. In the wake of the good analytical performance of such ALP activity assay and its successful combination with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), corresponding fluorometric and colorimetric dual-readout ALP-based ELISA has been constructed for highly sensitive and quantitative determination of human prostate specific antigen (PSA), the key biomarker of prostate cancer in human serum. The convincing performance in evaluating PSA level in serologic test unambiguously reveals the great potential of our proposed fluorometric and colorimetric dual channel immunoassay in early clinic diagnosis by monitoring disease biomarkers.