Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the sole effective treatment for allergic rhinitis and asthma. However, traditional subcutaneous AIT delivery schedules are time-consuming, and safety concerns remain; for sublingual AIT, the optimum efficacy–safety balance is still being researched, and for food allergy, the best efficacy–safety balance is not yet fully established. Recently, researchers have made strides in these areas. Since January 2014, multiple rush or cluster build-up stages have been successfully investigated using hypoallergic extract variations. Furthermore, only preseasonal subcutaneous AIT was shown to be effective for tree and grass pollen. Sublingual AIT with tablets and highly concentrated liquid formulations was proven to be efficacious and well-tolerated in allergic rhinitis and asthma, but not cockroaches. Oral immunotherapy for food allergy is promising, but it is important to pay special attention to the correct delivery schedule, maintenance dosage, and definition of effectiveness.

The practicing physician should be on the lookout for developments in the field of aeroallergen AIT and food oral immunotherapy, carefully examining the given data and interpreting product-specific conclusions without generalizing.