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Alterations in the oral microbiome in HIV-infected participants after ART administration are influenced by immune status.

Alterations in the oral microbiome in HIV-infected participants after ART administration are influenced by immune status.
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Presti RM, Handley S, Droit L, Ghannoum M, Jacobson M, Shiboski CH, Webster-Cyriaque J, Brown T, Yin MT, Overton ET,


Presti RM, Handley S, Droit L, Ghannoum M, Jacobson M, Shiboski CH, Webster-Cyriaque J, Brown T, Yin MT, Overton ET, (click to view)

Presti RM, Handley S, Droit L, Ghannoum M, Jacobson M, Shiboski CH, Webster-Cyriaque J, Brown T, Yin MT, Overton ET,

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AIDS (London, England) 2018 03 28() doi 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001811

Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To characterize the oral bacterial microbiome in HIV-infected participants at baseline and after 24 weeks of EFV/FTC/TDF.

DESIGN
Thirty-five participants co-enrolled in two AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) studies, A5272 and A5280, with paired saliva samples and complete data sets were assessed.

METHODS
Paired saliva samples were evaluated for bacterial microbiome using 16S rDNA PCR followed by Illumina sequencing. Diversity and differential abundance was compared between groups. A random forest classification scheme was used to determine the contribution of parameters in classifying participants’ CD4 count.

RESULTS
Bacterial communities demonstrated considerable variability both within participants and between timepoints, although they became more similar after 24 weeks of ART. At baseline, both the number of taxa detected and the average alpha diversity were variable between participants, but did not differ significantly based on CD4, viral load or other factors. After 24 weeks of ART samples obtained from participants with persistently low CD4 counts had significantly higher bacterial richness and diversity. Several differentially abundant taxa, including Porphyromonas species associated with periodontal disease, were identified, which discriminated between baseline and posttreatment samples. Analysis demonstrated that although inflammatory markers are important in untreated disease, the salivary microbiome may play an important role in CD4 count recovery after ART.

CONCLUSION
Shifts in the oral microbiome after ART initiation are complex, and may play an important role in immune function and inflammatory disease.

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