Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes diseases ranging from skin infections to lethal sepsis and has become a serious threat to human health due to multiple-drug resistance (MDR). Therefore, a resistance-free antibacterial therapy is necessary to overcome MDR MRSA infections. In this study, an antibacterial nanorobot (Ab-nanobot) is developed wherein a cell wall-binding domain (CBD)-endolysin, acting as a sensor, is covalently conjugated with an actuator consisting of an iron oxide/silica core-shell. The CBD-endolysin sensor shows an excellent specificity to detect, bind, and accumulate on the S. aureus USA300 cell surface even in a bacterial consortium, and in host cell infections. Ab-nanobot specifically captures and kills MRSA in response to medically approved radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic stimulation (EMS) signal. When Ab-nanobot receives the RF-EMS signal on the cell surface, actuator induces cell death in MRSA with 99.999% removal within 20 min by cell-wall damage via generation of localized heat and reactive oxygen species. The in vivo efficacy of Ab-nanobot is proven using a mice subcutaneous skin infection model. Collectively, this study offers a nanomedical resistance-free strategy to overcome MDR MRSA infections by providing a highly specific nanorobot for S. aureus.
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