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An Evaluation of Selected Populations for HIV-1 Vaccine Cohort Development in Nigeria.

An Evaluation of Selected Populations for HIV-1 Vaccine Cohort Development in Nigeria.
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Njoku OS, Manak MM, O'Connell RJ, Shutt AL, Malia JA, Heipertz RA, Tovanabutra S, Milazzo MJ, Akintunde GA, Alabi AS, Suleiman A, Ogundeji AA, Kene TS, Nelson R, Ayemoba OR, Singer DE, Robb ML, Peel SA, Michael NL,


Njoku OS, Manak MM, O'Connell RJ, Shutt AL, Malia JA, Heipertz RA, Tovanabutra S, Milazzo MJ, Akintunde GA, Alabi AS, Suleiman A, Ogundeji AA, Kene TS, Nelson R, Ayemoba OR, Singer DE, Robb ML, Peel SA, Michael NL, (click to view)

Njoku OS, Manak MM, O'Connell RJ, Shutt AL, Malia JA, Heipertz RA, Tovanabutra S, Milazzo MJ, Akintunde GA, Alabi AS, Suleiman A, Ogundeji AA, Kene TS, Nelson R, Ayemoba OR, Singer DE, Robb ML, Peel SA, Michael NL,

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PloS one 2016 12 0911(12) e0166711 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0166711

Abstract

Development of a globally effective HIV-1 vaccine will need to encompass Nigeria, one of the hardest hit areas, with an estimated 3.2 million people living with HIV. This cross-sectional Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved study was conducted in 2009-12 at four market sites and two highway settlements sites in Nigeria to identify and characterize populations at high risk for HIV; engage support of local stakeholders; and assess the level of interest in future vaccine studies. Demographic, HIV risk data were collected by structured interviewer-administered questionnaires. Blood samples were tested on site by HIV rapid diagnostic tests, followed by rigorous confirmatory testing, subtype evaluation and testing for HBV and HCV markers in a clinical reference laboratory. Of 3229 study participants, 326 were HIV infected as confirmed by Western Blot or RNA, with a HIV prevalence of 15.4%-23.9% at highway settlements and 3.1%-9.1% at market sites. There was no observable correlation of prevalence of HIV-1 (10.1%) with HBV (10.9%) or HCV (2.9%). Major HIV-1 subtypes included CRF02_AG (37.5%); G (27.5%); G/CRF02_AG (25.9%); and non-typeable (8.9%), with 0.3% HIV-2. Univariate analysis found age, gender, marital status, level of education, and sex under substance influence as significant risk factors for HIV (p<0.001). Educating and winning the trust of local community leadership ensured high level of participation (53.3-77.9%) and willingness to participate in future studies (95%). The high HIV prevalence and high risk of HIV infection at highway settlement and mammy markets make them well suited for targeting future vaccine trials in Nigeria.

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