To explore the causes and management of the complications in diabetic foot treated with tibial transverse transport (TTT).
Between September 2015 and September 2019, 196 patients with diabetic foot were treated with TTT. There were 109 males and 87 females, with an average age of 67.6 years (range, 45-86 years). According to Wagner’s classification, there were 124 cases of grade 3, 62 cases of grade 4, and 10 cases of grade 5; the course of disease was 1-12 months, with an average of 2.6 months. All patients underwent the minimally invasive tibial osteotomy. The osteotomy site was the middle and lower tibia in 62 cases and the middle and upper tibia in 134 cases. The area of osteotomy was 20 cm in 83 cases and 7.5 cm in 113 cases. The osteotomy block was moved back and forth once in 92 cases and twice in 104 cases. The complications were recorded, including secondary fracture at tibial osteotomy, skin necrosis in osteotomy area, and pin tract infection.
Among 196 patients, 41 cases (20.9%) had complications. Nine cases (4.6%) had secondary fracture at tibial osteotomy, among which 6 cases (9.6%) of middle and lower segment osteotomies and 3 cases (2.2%) of middle and upper segment osteotomies. The incidence between the patients with different osteotomy sites was significant ( =5.354, =0.021). The area of osteotomy was 20 cm in 5 cases (6.0%) and 7.5 cm in 4 cases (3.5%). There was no significant difference in the incidence between patients with different areas ( =0.457, =0.499). Skin necrosis occurred in the osteotomy area in 12 cases (6.1%), all of which were moved back and forth once. There was a significant difference in the incidence between patients who were treated with transport once and twice ( =0.001). There were 18 cases (9.1%) with pin tract infection, including 12 cases (6.1%) with mild infection and 6 cases (3.0%) with severe infection. There was no significant difference in the incidence between the patients with mild and severe infections ( =0.107).
TTT is an effective method to treat diabetic foot, but there are complications such as secondary fracture at tibial osteotomy, skin necrosis in osteotomy area, and pin tract infection during transport. Preoperative evaluation of indication, standardization of osteotomy mode, size and position of osteotomy block, establishment of individualized removal plan, and strengthening of pin track nursing after operation can effectively reduce complications.