After parturition, bovine uterine stromal cells are often exposed to complex bacterial and viral stimuli owing to epithelial cell rupture, resulting in an inflammatory response. In this study, we used an in vitro model to study the response of bovine endometrial stromal cells to inflammatory mediators and the associated regulated microRNAs in response to lipopolysaccharide. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a bacterial wall component in gram-negative bacteria that causes inflammation upon immune recognition, which is used to create in vitro inflammation models. Thus, we used high-throughput RNA sequencing to identify miRNAs that may have an anti-inflammatory role in the LPS-induced inflammatory response. Two groups of bovine uterine cells were treated with phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and LPS, respectively. Compared with the control (PBS) group, the LPS-treated group had 219 differentially expressed miRNAs, of which 113 were upregulated, and 106 were downregulated. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed that the target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs were significantly enriched in several activities, such as transferase activity, small molecule binding, and protein binding. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis indicated that the target genes of differential miRNAs were significantly enriched in fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, MAPK signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway. By analyzing differentially expressed miRNAs, we found that miR-200c, miR-1247-3p, and let-7b are directly related to the inflammatory response. For instance, miR-200c target genes (MAP3K1, MAP4K3, MAPKAPK5, MAP3K8, MAP3K5) and let-7b target genes (CASP3, IL13, MAPK8, CXCL10) were significantly enriched in the MAPK and IL-17 signaling pathways, respectively. In summary, our research provides insight into the molecular mechanism underlying LPS-induced inflammation in vitro, which may unveil new targets for the treatment of endometritis.
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