The following is the summary of “Optogenetics for visual restoration: From proof of principle to translational challenges” published in November 2022 issue of Retinal and Eye by  Lindner, et al.

Degenerative retinal illnesses are a wide collection of diseases that typically result in the death of photoreceptors irreversibly while leaving the inner retina largely unharmed. In recent years, novel gene replacement therapies that attempt to slow the progression of some inherited retinal illnesses have made their way into clinical settings. These therapies are currently being tested in humans. Optogenetic gene therapy now offers a practicable treatment option that can restore lost vision even at late disease stages and, to a large extent, independent of the underlying cause of degeneration. 

This is accomplished by making light responsive to the remaining retinal neurons. Since the proof-of-concept experiment that took place over 15 years ago, this field has rapidly progressed, and a thorough first report on a patient who has been treated as just publish

In this article, researchers present an overview of different optogenetic techniques that have been developed to restore vision. In the abstract, they described the optogenetic technologies that are now accessible and their relative benefits and drawbacks. 

Possible cellular targets will be examined, and we will address how retinal remodeling may affect the choice of target and to what degree it may limit the outcomes of optogenetic vision restoration. Possible cellular targets include: In conclusion, investigators will investigate the data for and against the claim that optogenetic tool-mediated toxicity exists. They will also talk about the difficulties connected with the clinical translation of this potentially beneficial therapeutic notion.