Gliosarcoma is a highly aggressive malignant neoplasm and a histopathological variant of wild-type glioblastoma multiforme isocitrate dehydrogenase (HDI). The current standard treatment consists of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgical resection, however, despite advances in these techniques, the patient’s prognosis remains unfavorable. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a noninvasive technique that has been highlighted as an alternative form of cancer treatment because it does not present the side effects associated with systemic treatments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cell viability and the intracellular localization of photosensitizer (PS) chlorin e6 Fotoenticine in 9L/lacZ cells. Therefore, tests of cytotoxicity, morphology, and location of PS were performed. The viability test showed no cytotoxicity in the dark at all concentrations and 100% cell death at the highest concentrations after PDT. The mitochondrial activity test showed a reduction in all groups after PDT. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was higher in the PDT groups and dependent on the PS concentration. Morphological analysis after PDT showed apparent cytoplasmic destruction in all the tested concentrations, with the presence of rounded cells due to the loss of their extensions and absence of nuclear alterations. The PS accumulation in the mitochondria and cytoskeleton was observed by the confocal microscopy; however, there is no evidence of its internalization in the lysosomes. It was concluded that PDT with Fotoenticine is a promising alternative therapy showing decreased cell viability, increased ROS production and adequate localization to trigger cell death.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier B.V.