Psoriasis is one of the most common human skin diseases, although its development is not limited to one tissue, but is associated with autoimmune reactions throughout the body. Overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors systemically stimulates the proliferation of skin cells, which manifests as excessive exfoliation of the epidermis, and/or arthritis, as well as other comorbidities such as insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and depression. Thus, there is a great need for a thorough analysis of the pathophysiology of psoriatic patients, including classical methods, such as spectrophotometry, chromatography, or Western blot, and also novel omics approaches such as lipidomics and proteomics. Moreover, the extensive pathophysiology forces increased research examining biological changes in both skin cells, and systemically. A wide range of techniques involved in lipidomic research based on a combination of mass spectrometry and different types of chromatography (RP-LC-QTOF-MS/MS, HILIC-QTOF-MS/MS or RP-LC-QTRAP-MS/MS), have allowed comprehensive assessment of lipid modification in psoriatic skin and provided new insight into the role of lipids and their mechanism of action in psoriasis. Moreover, proteomic analysis using gel-nanoLC-OrbiTrap-MS/MS, as well as MALDI-TOF/TOF techniques facilitates the description of panels of enzymes involved in lipidome modifications, and the response of the endocannabinoid system to metabolic changes. Psoriasis is known to alter the expression of proteins that are involved in the inflammatory and antioxidant response, as well as protein biosynthesis, degradation, as well as cell proliferation and apoptosis. Knowledge of changes in the lipidomic and proteomic profile will not only allow the understanding of psoriasis pathophysiology, but also facilitate proper and early diagnosis and effective pharmacotherapy.
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