The following is a summary of “Clinical utility of circulating cell division control 42 in small-vessel coronary artery disease patients undergoing drug-coated balloon treatment,” published in the October 2023 issue of Cardiology by Wu et al.
Cell division control 42 (CDC42) is a protein that regulates atherosclerosis, blood lipids, and inflammation in coronary artery disease (CAD). Still, it is unclear in drug-coated balloon (DCB)-treated small-vessel CAD (SV-CAD) patients.
Researchers started a retrospective study to investigate the changes in and prognostic role of CDC42 in SV-CAD patients undergoing DCB treatment. They conducted enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to measure Serum CDC42 in 211 SV-CAD patients who had undergone DCB at baseline, day (D) 1, D3, and D7, and in 50 healthy controls (HCs).
The results showed that CDC42 levels were lower in SV-CAD patients than HCs (P<0.001). CDC42 showed negative associations with total cholesterol (P=0.015), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.003), C-reactive protein (P=0.001), multivessel disease (P=0.020), and American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association type B2/C lesions (P=0.039) in SV-CAD patients. Longitudinally, CDC42 decreased from baseline to D1 and gradually increased to D7 (P<0.001) in SV-CAD patients after DCB. Interestingly, high CDC42 levels (cut-off value = 500 pg/mL) at baseline (P=0.047), D3 (P=0.046), and D7 (P=0.008) were associated with a lower accumulating target lesion failure (TLF) rate. High CDC42 at D3 (P=0.037) and D7 (P=0.041) were related to a lower accumulating major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) rate in SV-CAD patients who underwent DCB. Significantly, CDC42 at D7 (high vs. low) independently predicted lower accumulating TLF (HR = 0.145, P=0.021) and MACE (HR = 0.295, P=0.023) risks in SV-CAD patients who underwent DCB.
They concluded that lower circulating CDC42 levels predict lower risks of adverse outcomes in DCB-treated SV-CAD patients.