The classical anatomical representation of the lingual relief of the mental region of the mandible reflects the presence of geniohyoid as well as genioglossus attachment areas, which are divided into two or single areas. The International Anatomical Terminology (MAT) contains references to the presence of upper and lower spinae mentales, but the terminology does not reflect the content of these structures. The aim of this study was to examine and classify the lingual canals of the mental region.
Using a Sirona ORTHOPHOS XG 3D tomograph (isotropic voxel size 0.1 in high-resolution mode) and KaVo 3D eXam cone beam computed tomography, the mental region of the mandible was analyzed in 561 patients aged 18-75 years with regard to bone density and the occurrence of a canal opening on the lingual side of the mandible. In order to visualize the mental spine area, another 50 mandibles were analyzed, divided into two groups of 25 mandibels each: 25 native and 25 dry preparations.
By prevalence the following channel types were classified: in 33% type I (narrow); in 32% type II (double) and of these in 17.5% (convergent) and type IIb in 14.5% a type IIb subtype (non-convergent); in 14% type III (wide); in 12% type IV (hook-shaped) and in 9% type V (diverging channel), identifying three combined components: the system of channels of the superior and inferior mental spine, and the transversal intraosseous canal of the mental region of the mandible.
Our anatomical and radiological approach allowed us to suggest a new classification of intraosseous organization of the anterior part of the human mandible. As a result of studying X-ray anatomical and anatomical-topographical, constitutional-based, structural features of the mandible, intraosseous structures of the anterior mandible were clarified and classified, which solve not only terminological disputes, but also are important clinical guidelines for bone surgery, prosthetics, traumatology, endodontic treatment, dental implantation and local anesthesia.

Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
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