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Androgen receptor-mediated downregulation of microRNA-221 and -222 in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

Androgen receptor-mediated downregulation of microRNA-221 and -222 in castration-resistant prostate cancer.
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Gui B, Hsieh CL, Kantoff PW, Kibel AS, Jia L,


Gui B, Hsieh CL, Kantoff PW, Kibel AS, Jia L, (click to view)

Gui B, Hsieh CL, Kantoff PW, Kibel AS, Jia L,

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PloS one 2017 09 0812(9) e0184166 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0184166
Abstract

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in cancer formation and progression by suppressing the production of key functional proteins at the post-transcriptional level in a sequence-specific manner. While differential expression of miRNAs is widely observed in cancers including prostate cancer (PCa), how these miRNAs are transcriptionally regulated is largely unknown. MiRNA-221 and miRNA-222 (miR-221/-222) are well-established oncogenes and overexpressed in breast, liver, pancreas, and lung cancer, but their expression and biological functions in PCa remain controversial. Both up and down regulation have been observed in patient samples. Specifically, studies have demonstrated miR-221/-222 function as oncogenes, and promote PCa cell proliferation and the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, the expression level of miR-221/-222 is downregulated in several miRNA expression profiling studies. In this study, we demonstrate miR-221/-222 are androgen receptor (AR)-repressed genes and reside in a long primary transcript (pri-miRNA). Derepression of miR-221/-222 after androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) may enhance PCa cell proliferation potential through promoting G1/S phase transition. This function is likely transient but important in the development of CRPC. Downregulation of miR-221/-222 subsequently occurs once AR activity is restored through AR overexpression in CRPC. Our findings shed light on the complexity of transcriptional regulation of miRNAs in PCa and suggest context-dependent targeting of oncogenic miRNAs.

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