Both anemia and osteoporosis are common in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the relationship between them remains to be determined. This study showed that anemia was related to osteoporosis in male and female T2DM patients. Diabetes patients with anemia should also be wary of osteoporosis.
Anemia and osteoporosis are considered complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the relationship between anemia and osteoporosis in the T2DM population remains to be determined. Thus, we planned the present study to verify their relationship.
A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed. The patients were divided into groups according to sex and hemoglobin levels (Q1: ≤ 120, Q2: 120 to ≤ 140, Q3: > 140 in men; Q1: ≤ 110, Q2: 110 to ≤ 130, Q3: > 130 in women). Clinical characteristics and bone mineral density (BMD) were compared. The relationship between anemia and osteoporosis was determined after adjusting for age, diabetic duration, body mass index, alanine aminotransferase, creatinine, HbA1c, and fasting C-peptide. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 26.0.
This study included 2336 patients (1150 men and 1186 postmenopausal women). The percentage of osteoporosis differed by hemoglobin status in both men (Q1: 20.2%, Q2: 15.5%, Q3: 12.4%, P = 0.031) and women (Q1: 51.4%, Q2: 38.0%, Q3: 34.5%, P < 0.001). Q1, with the lowest hemoglobin level, has higher percentage of osteoporosis in men (20.2%) and in women (51.4%). Hip BMD (men: r = 0.168, P < 0.001, women: r = 0.126, P < 0.001) and femur neck BMD (men: r = 0.150, P < 0.001, women: r = 0.134, P < 0.001) were correlated with hemoglobin levels in both sexes. The odds of osteoporosis increased 1.4-fold in men and 2.0-fold in women in the Q1 groups compared with Q3 groups.
Anemia was related to osteoporosis in T2DM patients regardless of sex. Diabetic patients with anemia (men with hemoglobin below 120 g/L and women with hemoglobin below 110 g/L) should also be wary of osteoporosis.

© 2021. International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation.