The purpose of this study was to design an animal model mimicking glaucoma with hemodynamic instability and to identify involvement of angiotensin II (AngII) and associated changes of the retina. Systemic hypotension was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by oral hydrochlorothiazide administration. Rats were sacrificed at 4, 8, and 12-week time points. AngII and receptor levels were examined in the serum and retina. To examine the relationship between glia activation and associated RGC death, biochemical analysis of GFAP, Iba-1, and necroptosis associated factors such as TNFα, receptor-interacting protein (RIP) 1, 3, and inactive caspase 8 were explored. To investigate the difference in RGC death mechanism, JNK inhibitor or RIP3 inhibitor were given intraperitoneally to rats with ocular hypertension and systemic hypotension both to identify the pathway mainly involved. AngII and receptors were increased in the serum and retina of systemic hypotensive rat. At 4, 8, and 12 weeks after hypotension induction, glial activation was increased as indicated by GFAP and Iba-1 staining. TNFα, RIP3 were elevated. and downregulation of inactive caspase 8 was apparent in the retina of hypotensive rat. Electron microscopy revealed that necroptosis of RGC was gradually increased after systemic hypotension. Following intraperitoneal JNK inhibitor or RIP3 inhibitor administration, RGC loss was attenuated in systemic hypotensive rats but not in ocular hypertensive rats. In conclusion, AngII is involved in glial activation and associated RGC necroptosis following systemic hypotension. This pathway represents a novel and distinct cell death mechanism when compared to that involved in elevated intraocular pressure.
© 2022. The Author(s).