Venous malformations (VMs) may manifest clinically in a broad spectrum. Most VMs are sporadic with previous studies reporting less than 1.2% to be inherited. Conversely, multifocal lesions, such as glomuvenous malformations (GVMs), which have glomus cells in their vascular walls, have been reported to have a frequency of inheritance of 63.8%. Both VMs and GVMs may occur due to sporadic mutation and must be differentiated clinically because this will dictate their proper treatment. Sporadic GVMs involve skin and subcutis, with bluish-purple coloration, are painful to compression, and have no radiographic evidence of phleboliths. Previous studies have demonstrated that VMs are almost always associated with a single lesion that is nontender to compression and are often able to be diagnosed by the presence of phleboliths on radiographic imaging. We present a case of a 14-year-old right-hand-dominant male who presented with two distinct VMs on the dorsum of the right index finger at the proximal and middle phalanges. A previously biopsied lesion overlying the ipsilateral olecranon, which was reported as a possible glomus tumor versus vascular malformation, was present as well. Based on history, physical examination, multicentric presentation, and radiographic findings, the presumptive diagnosis was that the lesions were GVMs. However, after surgical excision and histopathologic examination, the lesions were determined to be VMs because of the absence of glomus cells. Due to the difference in treatment modalities for VMs and GVMs, the ability to accurately diagnose these lesions clinically is essential. This case represents an anomalous presentation of multiple venous malformations occurring in two distinct locations in a 14-year-old boy.
Copyright © 2021, Whisonant et al.