Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and can lead to persistent hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (PHH) and poor outcomes. We hypothesized that autoimmune and inflammatory mechanisms contribute to PHH pathogenesis. Men with moderate-to-severe TBI (n=143) were compared to healthy men (n=39). The TBI group provided blood samples 1-12 months post-injury (N=1225). TBI and healthy control (n=39) samples were assayed for testosterone (T) and luteinizing hormone (LH) to adjudicate PHH status. TBI samples 1-6 months post injury and control samples were assayed for immunoglobulin M (IgM)/immunoglobulin (IgG) anti-pituitary autoantibodies (APA) and anti-hypothalamus autoantibodies (AHA). Tissue antigen specificity for APA and AHA was confirmed via immunohistochemistry (IHC). IgM and IgG autoantibodies for glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) (AGA) were evaluated to gauge APA and AHA production as a generalized autoimmune response to TBI and to evaluate the specificity of APA and AHA to PHH status. An inflammatory marker panel was used to assess relationships to autoantibody profiles and PHH status. Fifty-one men with TBI (36%) had PHH. An age-related decline in T levels by both TBI and PHH status were observed. Injured men had higher APA IgM, APA IgG, AHA IgM, AHA IgG, AGA IgM, and AGA IgG versus controls (p<0.0001 all comparisons). However, only APA IgM (p=0.03) and AHA IgM (p=0.03) levels were lower in the PHH versus non-PHH group in multivariate analysis. There were no differences in IgG levels by PHH status. Multiple inflammatory markers were positively correlated with IgM autoantibody production. PHH was associated with higher soluble tumor-necrosis-factor receptors I/II, (sTNFRI, sTNFRII), regulated on activation, normal T-Cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and soluble interleukin-2-receptor-alpha (sIL-2Rα) levels. Higher IgM APA and AHA, but not AGA, in the absence of PHH may suggest a beneficial or reparative role for neuroendocrine tissue specific IgM autoantibody production against PHH development post-TBI.
EFFECTS OF SYNBIOTIC SUPPLEMENTATION ON GUT FUNCTIONING AND SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATION OF COMMUNITY-DWELLING ELDERS – SECONDARY ANALYSES FROM A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL.
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