Anti-resorptive drugs are widely used for the treatment of osteoporosis, but excessive inhibition of osteoclastogenesis can suppress bone turnover and cause the deterioration of bone quality. Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 15 (Siglec-15) is a transmembrane protein expressed on osteoclast precursor cells and mature osteoclasts. Siglec-15 regulates proteins containing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) domains, which then induce nuclear factor of activated T-cells 1 (NFATc1), a master transcription factor of osteoclast differentiation. Anti-Siglec-15 antibody modulates ITAM signaling in osteoclast precursors and inhibits the maturation of osteoclasts in vitro. However, in situ pharmacological effects, particularly during postmenopausal osteoporosis, remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that anti-Siglec-15 antibody treatment protected against ovariectomy-induced bone loss by specifically inhibiting the generation of multinucleated osteoclasts in vivo. Moreover, treatment with anti-Siglec-15 antibody maintained bone formation to a greater extent than with risedronate, the first-line treatment for osteoporosis. Intravital imaging revealed that anti-Siglec-15 antibody treatment did not cause a reduction in osteoclast motility, whereas osteoclast motility declined following risedronate treatment. We evaluated osteoclast activity using a pH-sensing probe and found that the bone resorptive ability of osteoclasts was lower following anti-Siglec-15 antibody treatment compared to after risedronate treatment. Our findings suggest that anti-Siglec-15 treatment may have potential as an anti-resorptive therapy for osteoporosis, which substantially inhibits the activity of osteoclasts while maintaining physiological bone coupling.Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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