Cancer medicine 2018 03 23() doi 10.1002/cam4.1438
Surgical resection is the only treatment for chondrosarcomas, because of their resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy; therefore, additional strategies are crucial to treat chondrosarcomas. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a ligand-activated transcription factor, which has been reported as a possible therapeutic target in certain malignancies including chondrosarcomas. In this study, we demonstrated that a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, zaltoprofen, could induce PPARγ activation and elicit anti-tumor effects in chondrosarcoma cells. Zaltoprofen was found to induce expressions of PPARγ mRNA and protein in human chondrosarcoma SW1353 and OUMS27 cells, and induce PPARγ-responsible promoter reporter activities. Inhibitory effects of zaltoprofen were observed on cell viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion, and the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2); these effects were dependent on PPARγ activation and evidenced by silencing PPARγ. Moreover, we showed a case of a patient with cervical chondrosarcoma (grade 2), who was treated with zaltoprofen and has been free from disease progression for more than 2 years. Histopathological findings revealed enhanced expression of PPARγ and reduced expression of MMP2 after administration of zaltoprofen. These findings demonstrate that zaltoprofen could be a promising drug against the malignant phenotypes in chondrosarcomas via activation of PPARγ and inhibition of MMP2 activity.