Antibacterial and antihyperplasia airway stents are highly desirable for tracheal stenosis. Herein, a series of polylactic acid (PLA) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) nanofiber membranes (PLA, PLA-4 %AgNPs and PLA-6 % AgNPs) were prepared by electrospinning. The physicochemical and biological properties of the resultant nanofiber membranes were examined. The SEM and drug release results indicated that the AgNPs were successfully introduced into PLA, and could be sustained to be released from membranes. The membranes showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, and cytocompatibility towards CCC-HPF-1 and NHBE cells. Furthermore, the membranes were used to cover a self-expandable metallic stent for use in the treatment of rabbit tracheal stenosis. The in vivo results revealed that the membranes, especially the AgNPs-coated airway stent could suppress tracheal stenosis by reducing inflammation and collagen deposition. Additionally, the study further confirmed that the inhibition of bacterial content in the trachea could be positively correlated with the reduction in tracheal granulation tissue hyperplasia. Conclusively, the PLA/AgNPs nanofiber membrane-coated airway stent has practical value for patients with clinical tracheal stenosis.
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