Narrow-spectrum antibiotics are recommended as the first-line therapy for management of children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). There are limited data evaluating the antibiotic prescription patterns for CAP in Saudi Arabia. The goal of this study to report on the antibiotic patterns in children hospitalized with CAP.
A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in children aged 1 month to 13 years who were hospitalized with a diagnosis of CAP at King Khalid Hospital in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia, between January 2019 and January 2020.
Data from 233 patients were collected. The majority of patients received amoxicillin clavulanate (57.9%), followed by ceftriaxone (30%), azithromycin (20.6%), cefuroxime (6%), ampicillin (2.1%), and piperacillin-tazobactam (2.1%). None of our patients were started on narrow-spectrum therapy. The younger age group (1-3 months) and patients with severe pneumonia were more likely to receive broad-spectrum cephalosporin and have a longer hospital stay (P = .000 and P = .002, respectively). However, the 4 months to 5 years age group was more likely to receive amoxicillin clavulanate (P = .001). Male gender was a significate risk factor for patients with severe pneumonia (P=.013) CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the inappropriate use of broad-spectrum therapy in children hospitalized with CAP. Further large multicenter studies are necessary to evaluate the patterns of antibiotic use and implement antimicrobial stewardship programs or quality-improvement projects to improve adherence to guidelines.

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