BMC infectious diseases 2017 03 0617(1) 192 doi 10.1186/s12879-017-2296-x
The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution and susceptibility of aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli isolated from Chinese patients with UTIs collected within 48 h (community acquired, CA) or after 48 h (hospital acquired, HA) of hospital admission.
From 2010 to 2014, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 12 antibiotics for 4,332 aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli, sampled in 21 hospitals in 16 cities, were determined by the broth microdilution method.
Enterobacteriaceae composed 88.5% of the total isolates, with Escherichia coli (E. coli) (63.2%) the most commonly isolated species, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) (12.2%). Non-Enterobacteriaceae accounted for only 11.5% of all isolates and included mainly Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) (6.9%) and Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) (3.3%). Among the antimicrobial agents tested, the susceptibility rates of E.coli to the two carbapenems, ertapenem and imipenem as well as amikacin and piperacillin-tazobactam ranged from 92.5 to 98.7%. Against K. pneumonia, the most potent antibiotics were imipenem (92.6% susceptibility), amikacin (89.2% susceptibility) and ertapenem (87.9% susceptibility). Although non-Enterobacteriaceae did not show high susceptibilities to the 12 common antibiotics, amikacin exhibited the highest in vitro activity against P. aeruginosa over the 5-year study period, followed by piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, ceftazidime, cefepime, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin. The Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) rates decreased slowly during the 5 years in E. coli from 68.6% in 2010 to 59.1% in 2014, in K. pneumoniae from 59.7 to 49.2%, and in Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) from 40.0 to 26.1%. However, the ESBL rates were different in 5 regions of China (Northeast, North, East, South and Middle-China).
E. coli and K. pneumonia were the major pathogens causing UTIs and carbapenems and amikacin retained the highest susceptibility rates over the 5-year study period, indicating that they are good drug choices for empirical therapies, particularly of CA UTIs in China.