This study depicts that Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and other causes of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) negatively impact the renal outcomes of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis. Here we review the diagnosis and management of occlusive renal vascular lesions due to APS and other TMAs, with a focus on patients with SLE and lupus nephritis. The presence of a thrombotic event, unexplained hypertension, thrombocytopenia, or hemolytic anemia should prompt consideration for TMA syndromes. The differential diagnosis of a TMA in a patient with SLE includes APS, thrombocytopenic purpura, complement-mediated or infection-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome, drug-mediated TMA (particularly due to calcineurin inhibitor toxicity), and malignant hypertension. Treatment of APS with a documented thrombotic event focuses on anticoagulation to reduce the risk for further thrombotic events.