For a study, antibodies directed against an aminoacyl transfer RNA synthetase caused the antisynthetase syndrome. It was characterized by clinical characteristics such as interstitial lung disease (ILD), myositis, Raynaud’s phenomenon, and arthritis. Antisynthetase syndrome patients had a greater frequency and severity of ILD than those with dermatomyositis and polymyositis, inflammatory myopathies with which it overlapped phenotypically. 

A multidisciplinary approach was used to make the diagnosis, which includes rheumatology and pulmonary assessments, as well as serologic, radiographic, and occasionally muscle and/or lung biopsy data. Antisynthetase syndrome patients frequently require multimodal immunosuppressive medication to manage the disease’s muscular and/or pulmonary symptoms. Long-term care for these patients necessitated paying close attention to the negative effects and complications of chronic immunosuppressive therapy, as well as disease-related sequelae such as progressive ILD requiring lung transplantation, pulmonary hypertension, malignancy, and a reduced survival rate. 

Patients with the antisynthetase syndrome were predicted to have better results if the clinical aspects of the illness were better understood. This helped to allow for early identification and treatment.

Reference:journals.lww.com/clinpulm/Abstract/2016/09000/The_Diagnosis_and_Treatment_of_Antisynthetase.5.aspx