PloS one 2017 10 1212(10) e0186449 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0186449
The aim of this systematic review and network meta-analysis was to evaluate the comparative efficacy and safety of antiplatelet agents, vitamin K antagonist (VKA) and non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched to identify clinical trials comparing antiplatelet drugs with VKA and NOACs or their combination in AF patients undergoing PCI with a mean/median follow-up of at least 12 months. A network meta-analysis was conducted to directly and indirectly compare the efficacy and safety of competitive antithrombotic regimens with a Bayesian random-effects model. Results were presented as relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
A total of 15 studies enrolling 13,104 patients were included. Among 5 regimens, rivaroxaban 15 mg daily plus P2Y12 inhibitor treatment demonstrated significant superiority over dual- and triple-antiplatelet therapies (DAPT, TT) in reducing thromboembolic events (0.64 [0.38, 0.95] and 0.68 [0.43, 0.98], respectively) but showed the maximum possibility of major bleeding risk, while VKA plus single antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) seemed the safest. Significantly less risk of major bleeding was seen in DAPT group than that in TT group (0.63 [0.39, 0.99]).
The present study suggests that combination of VKA and SAPT is the best choice for AF patients undergoing PCI considering both efficacy and safety. Rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus DAPT treatment owns the highest probability to be the optimal alternative to VKA plus SAPT for these patients.