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Apelin-36 Modulates Blood Glucose and Body Weight Independently of Canonical APJ Receptor Signaling.

Apelin-36 Modulates Blood Glucose and Body Weight Independently of Canonical APJ Receptor Signaling.
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Galon-Tilleman H, Yang H, Bednarek MA, Spurlock SM, Paavola KJ, Ko B, To C, Luo J, Tian H, Jermutus L, Grimsby J, Rondinone CM, Konkar A, Kaplan DD,


Galon-Tilleman H, Yang H, Bednarek MA, Spurlock SM, Paavola KJ, Ko B, To C, Luo J, Tian H, Jermutus L, Grimsby J, Rondinone CM, Konkar A, Kaplan DD, (click to view)

Galon-Tilleman H, Yang H, Bednarek MA, Spurlock SM, Paavola KJ, Ko B, To C, Luo J, Tian H, Jermutus L, Grimsby J, Rondinone CM, Konkar A, Kaplan DD,

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The Journal of biological chemistry 2016 12 19292(5) 1925-1933 doi 10.1074/jbc.M116.748103
Abstract

Apelin-36 was discovered as the endogenous ligand for the previously orphan receptor APJ. Apelin-36 has been linked to two major types of biological activities: cardiovascular (stimulation of cardiac contractility and suppression of blood pressure) and metabolic (improving glucose homeostasis and lowering body weight). It has been assumed that both of these activities are modulated through APJ. Here, we demonstrate that the metabolic activity of apelin-36 can be separated from canonical APJ activation. We developed a series of apelin-36 variants in which evolutionarily conserved residues were mutated, and evaluated their ability to modulate glucose homeostasis and body weight in chronic mouse models. We found that apelin-36(L28A) retains full metabolic activity, but is 100-fold impaired in its ability to activate APJ. In contrast to its full metabolic activity, apelin-36(L28A) lost the ability to suppress blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). We took advantage of these findings to develop a longer-acting variant of apelin-36 that could modulate glucose homeostasis without impacting blood pressure (or activating APJ). Apelin-36-[L28C(30kDa-PEG)] is 10,000-fold less potent than apelin-36 at activating the APJ receptor but retains its ability to significantly lower blood glucose and improve glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese mice. Apelin-36-[L28C(30kDa-PEG)] provides a starting point for the development of diabetes therapeutics that are devoid of the blood pressure effects associated with canonical APJ activation.

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