Schizophrenia is one of the chronic mental disorders characterized by disturbances in thought, emotion, language, perception, and behavior. There is no cure for this disease, and most of the current treatments are palliative. In this study, we aimed to analyze the application of electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback therapy, an adjunctive treatment used for many psychiatric disorders, in the rehabilitation of schizophrenic patients. Schizophrenic patients were selected as the experimental subjects, and the initial diagnosis criteria were set accordingly. A primary and a secondary efficacy index was then developed for the evaluation of EEG biofeedback therapy rather than traditional drug treatment. Lastly, the effects of the two methods were compared. The findings indicate that traditional drugs could be used in the treatment of mild schizophrenia, but showed poor results for severe and moderate schizophrenia. EEG biofeedback therapy was effective for the treatment of various degrees of schizophrenia and improved patients’ sleep quality and anxiety. These findings have significant practical implications for the rehabilitation of schizophrenic patients and patients with chronic diseases in general.Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.