To characterize the aqueous levels of inflammation and ischemia related biomarkers in a spectrum of retinal ischemic conditions, including neovascular glaucoma (NVG) with stable iris neovascularization after pan retinal photocoagulation (PRP) and anti-VEGF treatment.
Aqueous samples were collected from 139 eyes including NVG (n=12), stable NVG (n=26), CRVO (n=11), NPDR (n=18), PACG (n=18), PDR (n=25), BRVO (n=7) and cataract (n=22). The levels of VEGF-A, IL-8 and EPO were measured with ELISA.
Aqueous VEGF-A significantly decreased after anti-VEGF and PRP, from 983.79 ± 821.16 pg/ml in the NVG group (n = 11) to 256.50 ± 51.14 pg/ml in the stable NVG group (n = 24) (P= 0.015). Aqueous VEGF-A in stable NVG group (256.50 ± 51.14 pg/ml, n=24) was significantly higher (ANOVA, P < 0.001) than in CRVO (212.10±19.84 pg/ml, n=7, P = 0.017), NPDR (221.18±38.21 pg/ml, n=14, P = 0.015), BRVO (213.14±48.50 pg/ml, n=6, P = 0.028) and cataract group (185.30±34.35 pg/ml, n=22, P < 0.001). Aqueous IL-8 in stable NVG group (74.82±10.78 pg/ml, n=24) was significantly higher (ANOVA, P < 0.001) than in CRVO (65.19±15.34 pg/ml, n=11, P = 0.032) and cataract group (54.11±12.28 pg/ml, n=22, P<0.001). Aqueous EPO in stable NVG group (17.48±3.02 pg/ml, n=24) was significantly higher (ANOVA, P < 0.001) than in BRVO (14.98±2.57 pg/ml, n=7, P = 0.034) and cataract group (13.50±2.65 pg/ml, n=22, P<0.001). Aqueous concentrations of VEGF-A and IL-8 correlated positively with IOP (r=0.413, P <0.001, r=0.349, P <0.001, respectively, r=correlation coefficient). VEGF-A correlated positively with IL-8 and EPO (P <0.001, P= 0.002, respectively). IL-8 correlated positively with EPO (P <0.001).
The aqueous levels of VEGF-A, IL-8 and EPO in NVG patients with stable iris neovascularization, who had received PRP and anti-VEGF, were still significantly higher than in control groups with some retinal ischemic conditions.