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Are Prophylactic Antibiotic Agents Indicated in Anorectal Surgery for Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus?

Are Prophylactic Antibiotic Agents Indicated in Anorectal Surgery for Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus?
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Patel SA, Kucejko RJ, Fazendin EA, Poggio JL,


Patel SA, Kucejko RJ, Fazendin EA, Poggio JL, (click to view)

Patel SA, Kucejko RJ, Fazendin EA, Poggio JL,

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Surgical infections 2017 10 13() doi 10.1089/sur.2017.092
Abstract
BACKGROUND
With increased survival among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), surgeons have been seeing more cases of anal dysplasia and cancer. There is, however, no data on the incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs) in HIV-positive patients undergoing elective anorectal procedures, nor on the administration of prophylactic antibiotic agents. We reviewed a HIV-positive population that has undergone elective anorectal biopsy of areas of dysplasia observed on office anoscopy to assess the need for antibiotic prophylaxis.

PATIENTS AND METHODS
A retrospective chart review was performed of all HIV-positive patients seen as outpatients in the Colorectal Surgery Division from 2007-2016. Demographics, dates of surgery and follow-up, antibiotic prophylaxis, and pre-operative CD4 count and HIV viral load were recorded for 229 patients. Post-operative examination notes were reviewed to determine the presence of SSIs. The proportion of patients who received prophylaxis was assessed and the SSI rate was calculated.

RESULTS
Surgical site infections occurred in 2 of 237 (0.8%) cases without antibiotic prophylaxis and in none of the 38 cases with prophylaxis. This infection rate was found to be lower than that of the general surgery population, with no statistical difference from hemorrhoidectomy patients without HIV. One SSI occurred in a 51-year-old male with a pre-operative CD4 count of 612 per microliter and viral load of zero. Another occurred in a 57-year-old female with an unknown CD4 count and viral load. A χ(2) analysis showed the incidence of SSIs in the groups with and without prophylaxis was not significantly different (p = 0.563).

CONCLUSION
Surgical site infection rates in HIV-positive patients undergoing biopsies for anal dysplasia were similar to patients without HIV undergoing similar minor anorectal procedures, and no difference was noted in the rate of SSI with the administration of prophylactic antibiotic agents. We do not recommend routine use of prophylactic antibiotic agents in this population.

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