It is hypothesized that vitamin D deficiency, and calcium/phosphate imbalance could be involved in the pathophysiology of restless leg syndrome (RLS). This systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies were carried out to reach a firm conclusion regarding the possible association between vitamin D, calcium and phosphorous levels with RLS in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, other comorbidities and healthy population.
PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and Cochrane’s library were systematically searched up to June 2020. Quality assessment of the included observational studies was performed using Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Statistical analyses were done using STATA 11.2. A P-value <0.05 were considered statistically significant.
A total of 36 studies involving 9590 participants were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. We found that serum vitamin D level is significantly lower (WMD -3.39 ng/mL; 95% CI, -5.96 to -0.81; P = 0.010; I = 86.2%) and phosphorous (SMD 0.19; 95% CI, 0.04-0.34; P = 0.011; I = 83.6%) is significantly higher in RLS individuals compared to the non-RLS individuals. However, the mean difference of serum calcium was not significant in comparison between RLS and control groups (SMD -0.01; 95% CI, -0.19 to 0.18; P = 0.957; I = 89.2%).
Results revealed a significant association between serum vitamin D and phosphorous with RLS. However, further prospective cohort studies and clinical trials are needed for better understanding of the relationship between these variables.

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