What is the topic of this review? This review discusses the current status of the literature in sex differences in exertional heat stroke. What advances does this review highlight? We utilize a translational model to explore possible physical and physiological differences with respect risk and treatment of exertional heat stroke.
Exertional heat stroke (EHS) is a potentially fatal condition brought about by a combination of physical activity and heat stress and resulting in central nervous system dysfunction and organ damage. EHS impacts several hundred individuals each year ranging from military personnel, athletes, to occupational workers. Understanding the pathophysiology and risk factors can aid in reducing EHS across the globe. While we know there are differences between sexes in mechanisms of thermoregulation, there is currently not a clear understanding if/how those differences impact EHS risk. The purpose of this review is to assess the current status of the literature surrounding EHS from risk factors to treatment using both animal and human models. We use a translational approach, considering both animal and human research to elucidate the possible influence of female sex hormones on temperature regulation and performance in the heat and highlight the specific areas with limited research. While more work is necessary to comprehensively understand these differences, the current research presented provides a good framework for future investigations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.