Few reports have explored the possibility of involvement of non-inflammatory factors in lacrimal hyposecretion in Sjögren’s syndrome (SS). RNA-seq analysis revealed that only 4 genes, including arginase 1, were downregulated in the lacrimal gland of SS model male mice (NOD mice) after onset of lacrimal hyposecretion and dacryoadenitis. Even in non-dacryoadenitis type NOD mice, tear secretion and arginase 1 expression remained low. An arginase 1 inhibitor reduced tear secretion and partially reduced saliva secretion in BALB/c mice. The results indicate that a non-inflammatory factor, arginase 1, is involved in lacrimal hyposecretion in male NOD mice, regardless of dacryoadenitis status.
Lacrimal fluid (tears) is important for preservation of the ocular surface, and thus lacrimal hyposecretion in Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) leads to reduced quality of life. However, the cause(s) of lacrimal hyposecretion remains unknown, even though many studies have been conducted from the perspective of inflammation. Here, we hypothesized that a non-inflammatory factor induces lacrimal hyposecretion in SS pathology, and to elucidate such a factor, we conducted transcriptome analysis of the lacrimal glands in male non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice as an SS model. The NOD mice showed inflammatory cell infiltration and decreased pilocarpine-induced tear secretion at and after 6 weeks of age compared to age-matched BALB/c mice. RNA-seq analysis revealed that only 4 genes, including arginase 1, were downregulated, whereas many genes relating to inflammation were upregulated, in the lacrimal glands of male NOD mice after onset of lacrimal hyposecretion and dacryoadenitis (lacrimal gland inflammation). Changes in the arginase 1 expression level were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Furthermore, non-dacryoadenitis type NOD mice were used to investigate the relationships among arginase 1 expression, lacrimal hyposecretion and dacryoadenitis. Interestingly, these NOD mice retained the phenotype of dacryoadenitis with regard to tear secretion and the arginase 1 expression level. An arginase 1 inhibitor reduced tear secretion and partially reduced saliva secretion in BALB/c mice. In conclusion, a non-inflammatory factor, arginase 1, is involved in lacrimal hyposecretion in male NOD mice, regardless of dacryoadenitis status. These results shed light on the pathophysiological role of arginase 1 in SS (dry eye). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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