Armcx1 is highly expressed in the brain and is located in the mitochondrial outer membrane of neurons, where it mediates mitochondrial transport. Mitochondrial transport promotes the removal of damaged mitochondria and the replenishment of healthy mitochondria, which is essential for neuronal survival after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study investigated the role of Armcx1 and its potential regulator(s) in secondary brain injury (SBI) after TBI. An in vivo TBI model was established in male C57BL/6 mice via controlled cortical impact (CCI). Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) with Armcx1 overexpression and knockdown were constructed and administered to mice via stereotactic cortical injection. Exogenous miR-223-3p mimic or inhibitor was transfected into cultured cortical neurons, which were then scratched to simulate TBI in vitro. It was found that Armcx1 expression decreased significantly, while miR-223-3p levels increased markedly in peri-lesion tissues after TBI. The overexpression of Armcx1 significantly reduced TBI-induced neurological dysfunction, neuronal cell death, mitochondrial dysfunction, and axonal injury, while the knockdown of Armcx1 had the opposite effect. Armcx1 was potentially a direct target of miR-223-3p. The miR-223-3p mimic obviously reduced the Armcx1 protein level, while the miR-223-3p inhibitor had the opposite effect. Finally, the miR-223-3p inhibitor dramatically improved mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and increased the total length of the neurites without affecting branching numbers. In summary, our results suggest that the decreased expression of Armcx1 protein in neurons after experimental TBI aggravates secondary brain injury, which may be regulated by miR-223-3p. Therefore, this study provides a potential therapeutic approach for treating TBI.Copyright © 2023. Published by Elsevier Inc.