Artificial intelligence (AI) has enormous potential to support clinical routine workflows and therefore is gaining increasing popularity among medical professionals. In the field of gastroenterology, investigations on AI and computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems have mainly focused on the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, numerous CAD tools have been tested also in upper GI disorders showing encouraging results. The main application of AI in the upper GI tract is endoscopy; however, the need to analyze increasing loads of numerical and categorical data in short times has pushed researchers to investigate applications of AI systems in other upper GI settings, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, eosinophilic esophagitis, and motility disorders. AI and CAD systems will be increasingly incorporated into daily clinical practice in the coming years, thus at least basic notions will be soon required among physicians. For noninsiders, the working principles and potential of AI may be as fascinating as obscure. Accordingly, we reviewed systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, and original research articles regarding the performance of AI in the diagnosis of both malignant and benign esophageal and gastric diseases, also discussing essential characteristics of AI.
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