Biliary tract cancer (BTC) is a serious form of cancer of the biliary tract with 5-year survival rates of 5-15% and median survival of less than 1 year. Aspirin is considered to be one of the potential treatments to slow down the progression of the cancer ad to reduce cancer mortality. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of postdiagnosis aspirin use and BTC survival.

This study included a total of 2,934 eligible patients with confirmed BTC (GBC, cholangiocarcinoma, AVC, overlapping BTC) who used postdiagnosis aspirin. Cancer site-specific hazard ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression, and 95% CIs to derive the association between time-dependent postdiagnosis aspirin use and overall survival. The primary outcome of the study was overall mortality.

A total of 2,415 deaths (82%) with a median survival of 5.8 months was recorded. Of 2,934 patients, 256 (9%) were aspirin users at baseline, and 349 (12%) initiated aspirin use after diagnosis. The findings suggested that the use of aspirin was associated with a decreased risk of mortality in patients with GBC, cholangiocarcinoma, AVC, and overlapping BTC.

The research concluded that the use of aspirin was associated with a reduced risk of mortality across all BTC types.