Research has shown that women who are treated with chest radiation for a pediatric malignancy have a significantly increased risk of developing breast cancer at a young age. The risk of breast cancer is greatest among female pediatric cancer survivors who have been treated for Hodgkin lymphoma with high-dose mantle radiation. By age 45, it is estimated that 12% to 20% of women treated with moderate-to-high dose chest radiation will be diagnosed with breast cancer. For perspective, women with a BRCA gene mutation have an estimated cumulative incidence of breast cancer that ranges from 1% to 5% at age 30 and from 10% to 19% at age 40.