Salt and water homeostasis is regulated hormonally, so polyuria can result from endocrine disease directly or via secondary effects. These mechanisms are not consistently considered in primary care management of nocturia.
To conduct a systematic review (SR) of nocturia in endocrine disease and reach expert consensus for primary care management.
Four databases were searched from January 2000 to April 2020. A total of 4382 titles and abstracts were screened, 36 studies underwent full-text screening, and 14 studies were included in the analysis. Expert and public consensus was achieved using the nominal group technique (NGT).
Twelve studies focused on mechanisms of nocturia, while two evaluated treatment options; none of the studies took place in a primary care setting. NGT consensus identified key clinical evaluation themes, including the presence of thirst, a medical background of diabetes mellitus or insipidus, thyroid disease, oestrogen status, medications (fluid loss or xerostomia), and general examination including body mass index. Proposed investigations include a bladder diary, renal and thyroid function, calcium, and glycated haemoglobin. Morning urine osmolarity should be examined in the context of polyuria of >2.5 l/24 h persisting despite fluid advice, with urine concentration >600 mOsm/l after fluid restriction excluding diabetes insipidus. Treatment should involve education, including adjustment of lifestyle and medication where possible. Any underlying endocrine disorder should be managed according to local guidance. Referral to endocrinology is needed if there is hyperthyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, or morning urine osmolarity <600 mOsm/l after overnight fluid avoidance.
Endocrine disease can result in nocturia via varied salt and water regulation pathways. The aim of management is to identify and treat causative factors, but secondary effects can restrict improvements in nocturia.
People with altered hormone function can suffer from severe sleep disturbance because of a need to pass urine caused by problems in controlling water and salt levels. An expert panel recommended the best ways to assess and treat these problems on the basis of the rather small amount of up-to-date published research available.

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