Medical microbiology and immunology 2017 05 02() doi 10.1007/s00430-017-0506-1
Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a life-threatening malignancy of HTLV-1 infected Th lymphocytes. In the present study host-virus interactions were investigated by assessment of HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL) and host gene expression. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 18 ATLL, 10 HAM/TSP patients and 18 HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers (ACs). DNA and mRNA of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells were extracted for PVL and LAT, BIM, c-FOS and RAD51 gene expression measurement using qRT-PCR. The mean PVL in ATLL patients was 11,430 ± 3770 copies/10(4) which was statistically higher than ACs, 530 ± 119 copies/10(4), (p < 0.001). The expression of BIM, and c-FOS in ATLL patients were higher than HTLV-1 ACs; however, there were no statistically significant differences. The expression of RAD51 as an essential player on DNA repair showed around 160 times increase in ATLL group (166 ± 95) compared to ACs (1.04 ± 0.34) which is statistically significant (p < 0.001). Interestingly, there was a positive correlation between RAD51 expression and HTLV-PVL. The expression of LAT as a central adaptor in TCR signaling interestingly was around 36 times higher in ATLL group than ACs (ATLL; 41.33 ± 19.91 vs. ACs; 1.15 ± 0.22, p < 0.001). This finding showed that TCR signaling pathway mainly provides the growth factors for transformed cells. Furthermore, the overexpression of RAD51 which has been induced in HTLV-1 infected cells as a consequence of virus replication is not able to overcome the DNA damage toward cell transformation.