BMC pediatrics 2018 02 1218(1) 49 doi 10.1186/s12887-018-0990-5
Iron plays an important role in body defense and essential for normal immune system development where its deficiency may result in an inadequate immune response. We aimed to assess the lymphocyte subsets in childhood iron deficiency anemia (IDA) with their laboratory correlations.
Fifty IDA (< 18 years) and 25 age and sex-matched healthy children were enrolled and a complete history was obtained and clinical examination was performed. Complete blood count, serum iron, total iron binding capacity and serum ferritin, were performed. Flow cytometric determination of peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ T-lymphocytes and CD19+ B-lymphocytes and CD4/CD8 ratio were done. RESULTS
Patients had significantly lower hemoglobin, Serum iron, ferritin levels and higher lymphocytic count in patients compared with controls (p = 0.001, 0.03, 0.001, 0.001 respectively). CD3 count and percentage were significantly lower in IDA patients compared to controls (p = 0.007 and 0.005 respectively). There was a Significant reduction in the CD4 count, percentage and CD4/CD8 ratio in patients compared with controls (p = 0.001, 0.001 and 0.005 respectively) while there was no significant difference regarding CD8 count and percentage. No significant difference between the two studied groups regarding either CD19 count or percentage (p = 0.28 and 0.18 respectively) were found.
IDA is associated with impaired cell-mediated immune response specifically T-cell mediated immunity.