The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between volumetric parameters calculated using semiautomatic quantification of lesions detected in 68Ga-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen PET-computed tomography (68Ga-PSMA PET/CT) and clinical characteristics in prostate cancer (PCa) patients with biochemical recurrence.
A total of 85 consecutive PCa patients with biochemical recurrence who underwent 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT at our institution from January 2019 to March 2020 were retrospectively assessed. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT-derived volumetric parameters, including whole-body PSMA tumor volume (wbPSMA-TV) and whole-body total lesion PSMA (wbTL-PSMA), as well as the established maximum and mean standardized uptake value (SUVmax and SUVmean), were calculated for each patient. All PET-derived parameters were analyzed for correlation with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and for association with Gleason scores.
Eighty-five patients with a mean age of 68.9 ± 7.8 years (range, 47-83 years) and a mean PSA level of 40.9 ± 92.1 ng/ml (range, 0.2-533.2 ng/ml) were analyzed. Volumetric parameters, that is, wbPSMA-TV and wbTL-PSMA, demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with PSA levels (r = 0.403 and r = 0.556, respectively, all at P < 0.001) and only the means of wbTL-PSMA were significantly different between the Gleason score groups (P < 0.05).
The results of our study indicate that 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT might be a valuable tool for the detection and follow-up of recurrence in PCa patients. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT-derived quantitative volumetric parameters demonstrated a highly significant correlation with changes in PSA levels. Larger prospective studies are needed to help reveal the full potential of parameters such as PSMA-TV and TL-PSMA derived from PET imaging with 68Ga-PSMA.

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