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Association between Dietary Intakes of Nitrate and Nitrite and the Risk of Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

Association between Dietary Intakes of Nitrate and Nitrite and the Risk of Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.
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Bahadoran Z, Mirmiran P, Ghasemi A, Carlström M, Azizi F, Hadaegh F,


Bahadoran Z, Mirmiran P, Ghasemi A, Carlström M, Azizi F, Hadaegh F, (click to view)

Bahadoran Z, Mirmiran P, Ghasemi A, Carlström M, Azizi F, Hadaegh F,

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Nutrients 2016 12 218(12) pii E811
Abstract
BACKGROUND AND AIM
The association of habitual intakes of dietary nitrate (NO₃(-)) and nitrite (NO₂(-)) with blood pressure and renal function is not clear. Here, we investigated a potential effect of dietary NO₃(-) and NO₂(-) on the occurrence of hypertension (HTN) and chronic kidney disease (CKD).

METHODS
A total of 2799 Iranian adults aged ≥20 years, participating in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), were included and followed for a median of 5.8 years. Dietary intakes of NO₃(-) and NO₂(-) were estimated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Demographics, anthropometrics, blood pressure and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and during follow-up examinations. To identify the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of HTN and CKD across tertile categories of residual energy-adjusted NO₃(-) and NO₂(-) intakes, multivariate logistic regression models were used.

RESULTS
Dietary intake of NO₃(-) had no significant association with the risk of HTN or CKD. Compared to the lowest tertile category (median intake < 6.04 mg/day), the highest intake (median intake ≥ 12.7 mg/day) of dietary NO₂(-) was accompanied with a significant reduced risk of HTN, in the fully adjusted model (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.33-0.98; p for trend = 0.054). The highest compared to the lowest tertile of dietary NO₂(-) was also accompanied with a reduced risk of CKD (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.24-0.89, p for trend = 0.07). CONCLUSION
Our findings indicated that higher intakes of NO₂(-) might be an independent dietary protective factor against the development of HTN and CKD, which are major risk factors for adverse cardiovascular events.

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