Renal dysfunction has been reported to be associated with larger hematoma volume in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) due to concomitant nutritional imbalances and platelet dysfunction; however, this association remains controversial. This study analyzed the association between potential risk factors and hematoma volume in patients with ICH. This retrospective cohort study used data from 456 patients with ICH at a single comprehensive stroke center. We assessed the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and Controlling Nutritional Status score with hematoma volume using multivariable non-linear regression models. The effect of the use of antithrombotic agents on hematoma volume was analyzed using outcome-adaptive double/debiased machine learning approach, considering many covariates. The median and interquartile range of age and eGFR were 64 (54-75) years and 56.1 (39.3-66.7) mL/min/1.73 m, respectively. The multivariable non-linear regression model showed that (1) eGFR and hematoma volume had a positive linear association, which was not statistically significant, and (2) nutritional status was positively associated with hematoma volume, although not significantly. Outcome-adaptive double/debiased machine learning revealed that patients receiving antithrombotic agents did not present with significantly larger hematoma volume than those who were not receiving antithrombotic agents (estimated mean difference of hematoma volume [95% confidence interval] = 15.32 [-6.02 to 36.65]). Our analysis shows no statistically or clinically significant relationship between renal function and hematoma volume; however, nutritional status and the use of antithrombotic agents showed an increasing tendency of the degree of hematoma in patients with ICH.
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